Wheel Image

Wheel Torque Chart

American / Import Cars
Acura Alfa Romeo Aston Martin Audi Bentley
BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler
Daewoo Dodge Eagle Ferrari Ford
Geo Honda Hyundai Infiniti Isuzu
Jaguar Kia Lamborghini Lexus Lincoln
Maserati Mazda Mercedes Mercury Merkur
Mini Mitsubishi Nissan Oldsmobile Panoz
Plymouth Pontiac Porsche Rolls Royce Saab
Saturn Scion Suzuki Toyota Volkswagen
Volvo
Mini Vans, Light Trucks, and SUVs
Acura BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet
Chrysler Diahatsu Dodge Ford Honda
Hummer Hyundai Infinity Isuzu Jeep
Kia Land Rover Lexus Lincoln Mazda
Mercedes Mitsubishi Nissan Oldsmobile Plymouth
Pontiac Saturn Subaru Suzuki Toyota
Volkswagen Volvo
Make/Model Year Torque
Acura
All models 1990-05 80 ft-lbs
Alfa Romeo
All models 1991-95 75 ft-lbs
Alfa Romeo
All models 1991-95 75 ft-lbs
Aston Martin
Vanquish 2002-05 95 ft-lbs
All other models 1983-05 75 ft-lbs
Audi
All models 1982-05 90 ft-lbs
Bentley
Arnage 2002-04 100 ft-lbs
Arnage 1999-01 75 ft-lbs
Azure/ LeMans 2001-02 85 ft-lbs
Continental GT 2003-05 110 ft-lbs
All other models 1989-05 50 ft-lbs
BMW / Mini
745 & 760 2002-05 100 ft-lbs
Mini Cooper 2002-05 105 ft-lbs
All other models 1982-05 90 ft-lbs
Buick
All models 1982-05 100 ft-lbs
Cadillac
Deville HD Spec. 1997-01 140 ft-lbs
Catera 1997-01 80 ft-lbs
All other models 1977-05 100 ft-lbs
Chevrolet / Geo
Aveo 2004-05 90 ft-lbs
Metro 1991-99 50 ft-lbs
Prizm 1989-02 80 ft-lbs
Storm 1990-93 85 ft-lbs
All other models 1987-05 100 ft-lbs
Chrysler
Cirrus 1995-00 100 ft-lbs
Concorde 1993-04 110 ft-lbs
Crossfire 2004-05 85 ft-lbs
Fifth Avenue (RWD) 1983-90 85 ft-lbs
LeBaron/NewYorker 1984-96 95 ft-lbs
LHS/300M/300C/300 1999-05 110 ft-lbs
LHS 1994-97 95 ft-lbs
PT Cruiser 2001-05 110 ft-lbs
Prowler Roadster 2002 100 ft-lbs
Sebring Conv. 1996-05 105 ft-lbs
Sebring Coupe 1999-05 80 ft-lbs
Sebring Coupe 1996-98 100 ft-lbs
Sebring Sedan 2001-05 110 ft-lbs
T/C by Maserati 1989-91 95 ft-lbs
Daewoo
Lanos/Nubria 1999-03 90 ft-lbs
Leganza 1999-03 80 ft-lbs
Dodge
Avenger 1999-00 80 ft-lbs
Avenger 1995-98 100 ft-lbs
Charger 2006 110 ft-lbs
Colt 1976-94 80 ft-lbs
Daytona/Dynasty 1984-93 95 ft-lbs
Intrepid 1999-04 110 ft-lbs
Intrepid 1993-98 95 ft-lbs
Magnum 2005-06 110 ft-lbs
Neon 2000-05 110 ft-lbs
Neon 1999 100 ft-lbs
Neon 1995-98 95 ft-lbs
Omni 1984-90 95 ft-lbs
Shadow 1987-94 95 ft-lbs
Stratus 1995-99 100 ft-lbs
Stratus Sedan 2000-05 110 ft-lbs
Stratus Coupe 2001-05 80 ft-lbs
Spirit 1989-94 95 ft-lbs
Stealth 1991-96 100 ft-lbs
Viper 1993-04 100 ft-lbs
Vista 1984-91 60 ft-lbs
Eagle
Premier & Monaco * 1989-92 75 ft-lbs
*With aluminum wheels 100 ft-lbs
Talon 1990-98 100 ft-lbs
Summit 1989-96 80 ft-lbs
Medallion 1988 65 ft-lbs
Vison 1993-97 95 ft-lbs
Ferrari
360 Modena 2000-05 80 ft-lbs
550/575 Maranello 1998-05 100 ft-lbs
456 M GT/GTA 1995-04 90 ft-lbs
Testarossa(5 bolts) 1988-91 75 ft-lbs
348/Mondial T 1989-94 75 ft-lbs
All other models 90 ft-lbs
Ford
Aspire 1994-97 85 ft-lbs
Contour 1999-00 95 ft-lbs
Contour 1998 85 ft-lbs
Contour 1995-97 65 ft-lbs
Crown Victoria 2000-05 100 ft-lbs
Probe 1989-97 85 ft-lbs
Festiva 1988-93 85 ft-lbs
Escort/ZX2 1991-04 85 ft-lbs
Escort/EXP 1981-90 100 ft-lbs
Five Hundred 2005 100 ft-lbs
Focus 2000-05 95 ft-lbs
Freestyle 2005 100 ft-lbs
Mustang 1979-05 100 ft-lbs
Taurus 2000-05 95 ft-lbs
Taurus 1986-96 100 ft-lbs
Tempo 1984-96 100 ft-lbs
Thunderbird 1975-05 100 ft-lbs
All other models 1984-99 100 ft-lbs
Honda
All models 1984-04 80 ft-lbs
Hyundai
All models 1986-05 80 ft-lbs
Infiniti
G20 1999-02 100 ft-lbs
All other models 1990-05 85 ft-lbs
Isuzu
All models 1983-93 85 ft-lbs
Jaguar
S Type 2000-05 95 ft-lbs
All other models 1989-05 75 ft-lbs
Kia
All models 1993-05 85 ft-lbs
Lamborghini
All models 1990-04 80 ft-lbs
Lexus
All Models 1990-05 75 ft-lbs
Lincoln
All other models 1984-05 100 ft-lbs
Maserati
Spider 2002-04 90 ft-lbs
All other models 1989-91 75 ft-lbs
Mazda
Millenia 1995-02 90 ft-lbs
All other models 1976-05 85 ft-lbs
Mercedes
Models with 14mm bolts 1994-05 110 ft-lbs
All other models 1994-05 80 ft-lbs
Mercury
Capri 1991-94 90 ft-lbs
Cougar 1999-02 95 ft-lbs
Grand Marquis 2000-04 100 ft-lbs
Marauder 2003-04 95 ft-lbs
Montego 2005 100 ft-lbs
Mystique 1999-00 95 ft-lbs
Mystique 1998 85 ft-lbs
Mystique 1995-97 65 ft-lbs
Sable 2000-04 95 ft-lbs
Sable 1995-99 100 ft-lbs
Tracer 1988-99 90 ft-lbs
All other models 1984-05 100 ft-lbs
Merkur
Scorpio 1988-90 70 ft-lbs
XR4Ti 1985-89 100 ft-lbs
Mitsubishi
Eclipse 1990-99 100 ft-lbs
3000 GT 1991-99 100 ft-lbs
Lancer 2002-04 80 ft-lbs
Precis * 1987-94 60 ft-lbs
*With aluminum wheels 70 ft-lbs
All other models 1987-05 80 ft-lbs
Nissan
Sentra/Sentra E 1990-95 75 ft-lbs
All other models 1987-05 90 ft-lbs
Oldsmobile
All models 1977-04 100 ft-lbs
Panoz
All models 1999-05 90 ft-lbs
Plymouth
Acclaim/Reliant 1989-95 95 ft-lbs
Breeze 2000 105 ft-lbs
Breeze 1999 100 ft-lbs
Breeze 1996-98 95 ft-lbs
Colt 1983-94 80 ft-lbs
Grand Fury 1980-89 85 ft-lbs
Horizon 1978-90 95 ft-lbs
Laser 1990-94 95 ft-lbs
Neon (see Dodge)
Prowler 2000-01 100 ft-lbs
Sundance 1987-94 95 ft-lbs
Turismo 1982-87 95 ft-lbs
Vista * 1984-94 55 ft-lbs
* With aluminum wheels 80 ft-lbs
Pontiac
LeMans 1989-93 65 ft-lbs
Vibe 2003-05 75 ft-lbs
All other models 1990-05 100 ft-lbs
Porsche
Carrera GT 2004-05 407 ft-lbs
All other models 1972-05 95 ft-lbs
Rolls Royce
Parkwood/Seraph 1997-02 75 ft-lbs
Phantom 2004-05 105 ft-lbs
All other models 1989-02 50 ft-lbs
Saab
9-2X 2005 75 ft-lbs
9-3 / 9-5 1999-05 80 ft-lbs
900 models * 1995-98 80 ft-lbs
* With aluminum wheels 85 ft-lbs
9000 models 1994-98 90 ft-lbs
All other models 1988-93 90 ft-lbs
All other models 1976-87 80 ft-lbs
Saturn
L Series 2003-04 80 ft-lbs
L Series 2000-02 95 ft-lbs
EV-1 Electric 1997-02 100 ft-lbs
Vue 2002-04 100 ft-lbs
All other models 1991-05 100 ft-lbs
Scion
All Models 2004-05 75 ft-lbs
Subaru
SVX 1992-97 90 ft-lbs
All other models 1985-05 75 ft-lbs
Suzuki
Aerio 2002-05 65 ft-lbs
Esteem 1996-02 65 ft-lbs
Forenza 2004-05 90 ft-lbs
Swift 1989-01 50 ft-lbs
Reno 2005 65 ft-lbs
Verona 2004-05 80 ft-lbs
X-90 1996-98 70 ft-lbs
Toyota
All models 1985-05 80 ft-lbs
Volkswagen
All models 1999-05 90 ft-lbs
All models 1988-98 80 ft-lbs
Volvo
S / V40 2000-05 80 ft-lbs
S 60 2001-05 100 ft-lbs
C70 / S70 1998-04 80 ft-lbs
S 80 1999-05 100 ft-lbs
V 70 1998-05 100 ft-lbs
200 Series 1981-93 85 ft-lbs
700/900, S90/V90 1983-98 65 ft-lbs
850 Series 1993-97 80 ft-lbs
Mini Vans, Light Trucks, and SUVs
Make/Model Year Torque
Acura
MDX 2001-05 80 ft-lbs
SLX 1996-99 90 ft-lbs
BMW
X5 2000-05 105 ft-lbs
X3 2004-05 85 ft-lbs
Buick
Rendezvous 2002-05 100 ft-lbs
Cadillac
Escalade / EXT 1999-05 140 ft-lbs
SRX 2004-05 95 ft-lbs
Chevrolet / GMC
Astro/Safari Van 1985-05 100 ft-lbs
Avalanche 2002-05 140 ft-lbs
C/K Blazer/Suburban/Jimmy(full size) 1992-95 120 ft-lbs
C/K Pickup (Full) (SRW/DRW) 1996-00 140 ft-lbs
C30 HD (DRW) 5/8-18 1996-00 175 ft-lbs
C/K Pickup 1988-95 120 ft-lbs
C/K Pickup (DRW) 1988-95 140 ft-lbs
Colorado/Canyon 2004-05 100 ft-lbs
Denali 1997-05 140 ft-lbs
Envoy/XUV 1998-05 100 ft-lbs
Equinox 2004-05 100 ft-lbs
Express/Savana 1996-05 140 ft-lbs
G10/G15, G20/G25, G30/G35(SRW/DRW) 1996-99 140 ft-lbs
G10/G15, G20/G25, Full Size 1988-95 100 ft-lbs
G30/G35 Full Size 1988-95 120 ft-lbs
G30/G35 (DRW) Full Size 1988-95 140 ft-lbs
Lumina Minivan 1994-96 100 ft-lbs
Lumina APV 1990-93 100 ft-lbs
R10/R15-Full Size Suburban/Blazer 1989-91 100 ft-lbs
R20/R25,R30/R35-Full Size Suburban(SRW) 1989-91 120 ft-lbs
SSR 2003-05 80 ft-lbs
Suburban(DRW) 1989-91 125 ft-lbs
S/T Pickup/Blazer/Trail Blazer/Jimmy 1992-05 100 ft-lbs
S10/S15 Pickup/Blazer/Jimmy 1982-92 80 ft-lbs
Silverado/Sierra 1999-05 140 ft-lbs
Silverado/Sierra HD(DRW) 5/8-18 1999-05 175 ft-lbs
Suburban/Tahoe/Yukon 1996-05 140 ft-lbs
Tracker 1990-99 60 ft-lbs
Tracker 2000-05 70 ft-lbs
T10/T15 Pickup/Blazer/Jimmy 1982-91 100 ft-lbs
V10/V15 Full Size Suburban 1990-91 100 ft-lbs
Suburban / Blazer *
* With Aluminum Wheels 1988-89 100 ft-lbs
* With Steel Wheels 1988-89 90 ft-lbs
V20/V25,V30/V35 Full Size Suburban(SRW) 1989-91 120 ft-lbs
Suburban(DRW) 1989-91 125 ft-lbs
Uplander 2005 100 ft-lbs
Venture Minivan 1997-04 100 ft-lbs
Chrysler
Pacifica 2004-05 85 ft-lbs
PT Cruiser 2001-05 110 ft-lbs
Town & Country 2000-05 110 ft-lbs
Town & Country 1999 100 ft-lbs
Town & Country 1990-98 95 ft-lbs
Voyager 2001-03 110 ft-lbs
Diahatsu
Rocky (All) 1990-92 85 ft-lbs
Dodge
Grand Caravan/Caravan 2000-05 110 ft-lbs
Grand Caravan/Caravan 1999 100 ft-lbs
Dakota Pickup(All) 1985-98 95 ft-lbs
Dakota Pickup 1994-05 110 ft-lbs
Durango 1998-05 110 ft-lbs
Pickup (D&W series) D100/150,D200/250 1972-93 105 ft-lbs
D300/350(1/2"stud) 1979-93 105 ft-lbs
D300/350(5/8"stud) 1979-93 105 ft-lbs
w/ flanged 5/8"stud 1979-93 200 ft-lbs
Ramcharger 1979-93 350 ft-lbs
Rampage (FWD) 1979-93 105 ft-lbs
Ram 50 Pickup 1982-84 90 ft-lbs
Ram Pickup 1987-93 100 ft-lbs
1500 2002-05 135 ft-lbs
1500 1994-01 110 ft-lbs
2500 2002-05 135 ft-lbs
2500 1994-01 150 ft-lbs
3500 2002-05 145 ft-lbs
3500 1994-01 160 ft-lbs
SRT-10 2004-05 135 ft-lbs
Ram Van
B1500 2002-05 110 ft-lbs
B1500 1998-01 115 ft-lbs
B1500 1995-97 110 ft-lbs
B2500 (9/16"-18 studs) 1999-05 150 ft-lbs
B2500 1998 115 ft-lbs
B2500 1997 110 ft-lbs
B3500 (9/16"-18 studs) 1999-05 150 ft-lbs
B3500 w/out 5/8" studs 1995-98 115 ft-lbs
with 5/8" studs 1995-98 225 ft-lbs
B150 1994 110 ft-lbs
B250/350 w/out 5/8" studs 1994 115 ft-lbs
with 5/8" studs 1994 225 ft-lbs
Ram Van (FWD) 1984-93 95 ft-lbs
Ram Wagon
B1500 2002 110 ft-lbs
B1500 1998-01 115 ft-lbs
B1500 1995-97 110 ft-lbs
B2500 (9/16"-18 studs) 1992-02 150 ft-lbs
B2500 1998 115 ft-lbs
B2500 1997 110 ft-lbs
B2500 1995-96 115 ft-lbs
B3500 (9/16"-18 studs) 1999-02 150 ft-lbs
B3500 w/out 5/58" studs 1995-98 115 ft-lbs
with 5/8" studs 1995-98 225 ft-lbs
B150 1994 110 ft-lbs
B250/B350 w/out 5/8" studs 1994 115 ft-lbs
with 5/8" studs 1994 225 ft-lbs
Wagon
B100/150 1972-93 105 ft-lbs
B200/250 1972-93 105 ft-lbs
B300/350 (1/2" studs) 1979-93 105 ft-lbs
B300/350 (5/8" studs) 1979-93 200 ft-lbs
w/ flanged 5/8" studs 1979-93 350 ft-lbs
Sprinter 2500 2004-05 140 ft-lbs
Sprinter 3500 2004-05 180 ft-lbs
Ford
Aerostar 1986-97 100 ft-lbs
Bronco 1987-96 100 ft-lbs
Bronco II 1987-90 100 ft-lbs
Escape 2001-05 100 ft-lbs
Excursion All 2001-05 160 ft-lbs
Excursion 2000 150 ft-lbs
Expedition (12mm stud) 1997-00 *100 ft-lbs
Expedition (14mm stud) 2000-05 *150 ft-lbs
Explorer 1991-05 100 ft-lbs
E150 1975-05 100 ft-lbs
E250/350 (8 lug 9/16"-18) 1988-05 140 ft-lbs
E Super Duty (10 lug) 2002-05 165 ft-lbs
F150 (12mm stud) 1988-00 *100 ft-lbs
F150 (14mm stud) 2000-05 *150 ft-lbs
F250/350 (8 lug 9/16"-18) 2001-03 160 ft-lbs
F250/350 (8 lug 9/16"-18) 1999-00 150 ft-lbs
F250/350 (8 lug 9/16"-18) 1988-98 140 ft-lbs
F Super Duty
(10 lug 9/16"-18) 1999-05 165 ft-lbs
(10 lug 9/16"-18) 1996-98 140 ft-lbs
Ranger Pickup 1987-05 100 ft-lbs
Windstar/Freestar 1995-05 100 ft-lbs
* For 2000 model year, check lug nut washer for correct torque setting.
Honda
CR-V 1997-05 80 ft-lbs
Element 2003-05 80 ft-lbs
Odyssey 1995-05 80 ft-lbs
Passport 1994-02 90 ft-lbs
Pilot 2003-05 80 ft-lbs
Ridgeline 2005-06 100 ft-lbs
Hummer
H1/H2 2003-05 140 ft-lbs
Hyundai
Santa Fe 2001-05 80 ft-lbs
Infinity
QX4 1997-05 105 ft-lbs
FX35/FX45 2003-05 80 ft-lbs
Isuzu
Ascender 2003-05 80 ft-lbs
Amigo 1992-94 **85 ft-lbs
Amigo 1991 *75 ft-lbs
Axiom 2002-04 95 ft-lbs
Hombre 1996-00 95 ft-lbs
Oasis 1996-99 80 ft-lbs
Pickup 1995 **85 ft-lbs
Pickup 1991 *75 ft-lbs
Pickup 1990 **85 ft-lbs
Rodeo 1991-04 *65 ft-lbs
Trooper 1984-02 85 ft-lbs
Vehicross 1999-01 85 ft-lbs
* with aluminum wheels 85 ft-lbs
** with aluminum wheels 95 ft-lbs
Jeep
Cherokee 1994-01 110 ft-lbs
Wagoneer 5-lug 110 ft-lbs
Wagoneer 6-lug 75 ft-lbs
Comanche 1984-92 75 ft-lbs
Grand Cherokee 1993-05 110 ft-lbs
Liberty 2002-05 110 ft-lbs
Wrangler 1994-05 110 ft-lbs
Wrangler/CJ 1990-93 80 ft-lbs
Kia
Sedona 2002-04 75 ft-lbs
Sorento 2003-04 85 ft-lbs
Sportage 1995-05 85 ft-lbs
Land Rover
Defender 90/110 1993-97 95 ft-lbs
Discovery 1994-99 95 ft-lbs
Discovery Series II 1999-05 105 ft-lbs
Freelander S/SE/HSE 2002-05 85 ft-lbs
LR3 2005 100 ft-lbs
Ranger Rover Classic 1987-95 95 ft-lbs
Ranger Rover HSE 1996-02 85 ft-lbs
Ranger Rover HSE 2003-05 105 ft-lbs
Range Rover SE 1995-01 85 ft-lbs
Lexus
GX470 2003-05 85 ft-lbs
LX450 1996-97 80 ft-lbs
LX470 1998-05 95 ft-lbs
RX300/330 1999-05 80ft-lbs
Lincoln
Aviator 2003-05 100 ft-lbs
Blackwood 2002-04 155 ft-lbs
Navigator(12mm stud) 1998-00 *100 ft-lbs
Navigator (14mm stud) 2000-04 *150 ft-lbs
Mark LT 2006 150 ft-lbs
* For 2000 model year, check lug nut washer for correct torque setting.
Mazda
B2200 1986-93 *85 ft-lbs
B2300/B4000 1994-05 100 ft-lbs
B2500/3000 1998-05 100 ft-lbs
B2600 1987-93 *85 ft-lbs
MPV 1996-05 85 ft-lbs
Navaho 1991-94 100 ft-lbs
Tribute 2001-05 105 ft-lbs
*with Chrome Steel Wheels 100 ft-lbs
Mercedes
M-class 1998-05 110 ft-lbs
Mercury
Mountaineer 1997-05 100 ft-lbs
Villager 1993-02 80 ft-lbs
Mitsubishi
Endeavor 2004-05 80 ft-lbs
Montero 2000-04 85 ft-lbs
Montero 1999 100 ft-lbs
Montero 1997-98 110 ft-lbs
Montero 1994-96 85 ft-lbs
Montero 1993 100 ft-lbs
Montero Sport 2000-05 85 ft-lbs
Montero Sport 1999 100 ft-lbs
Montero Sport 1997-98 105 ft-lbs
Outlander 2003-05 80 ft-lbs
Pickups 1992-96 100 ft-lbs
Pickups 1989-91 85 ft-lbs
Van/Wagons 1989-90 100 ft-lbs
Nissan
Pathfinder/Frontier 1987-05 105 ft-lbs
Pickups 1987-97 105 ft-lbs
Pickups (DRW) 1987-91 200 ft-lbs
Quest 1995-05 85 ft-lbs
Titan 2004-05 105 ft-lbs
Xterra/Murano 2000-05 80 ft-lbs
Oldsmobile
Bravada 1991-04 100 ft-lbs
Silouette 1990-04 100 ft-lbs
Plymouth
Voyager/Grand Voyager 2000 110 ft-lbs
Voyager/Grand Voyager 1999 100 ft-lbs
Voyager/Grand Voyager 1984-98 95 ft-lbs
Pontiac
Aztec 2001-05 100 ft-lbs
Montana/Trans Sport 1990-05 100 ft-lbs
Saturn
Vue 2002-05 100 ft-lbs
Subaru
Baja 2003-05 75 ft-lbs
Forester 1998-05 75 ft-lbs
Suzuki
Grand Vitara/Vitara 1999-05 70 ft-lbs
Samuri 1991-94 80 ft-lbs
Samuri 1985-90 55 ft-lbs
Sidekick 1989-98 75 ft-lbs
X-90 1996-98 70 ft-lbs
Toyota
Highlander 2001-05 80 ft-lbs
Land Cruiser 1999-05 100 ft-lbs
Land Cruiser 1994-98 *105 ft-lbs
Land Cruiser 1989-93 115 ft-lbs
Pickup 2WD (SRW) 1989-94 100 ft-lbs
Pickup 2WD (DRW) 1989-94 170 ft-lbs
Pickup 4WD 1991-92 80 ft-lbs
Previa/Rav4/Sienna 1991-05 80 ft-lbs
Sequoia 2001-05 85 ft-lbs
Tacoma 1999-05 85 ft-lbs
Tacoma 1995-98 80 ft-lbs
Tundra 2000-05 85 ft-lbs
T100 1995-98 80 ft-lbs
4 Runner 1999-05 85 ft-lbs
4 Runner 1988-98 80 ft-lbs
* With aluminum wheels 80 ft-lbs
Volkswagen
EuroVan 1997-03 130 ft-lbs
EuroVan 1992-96 115 ft-lbs
Pickups 1979-84 80 ft-lbs
Touareg 2004-05 120 ft-lbs
Volvo
XC90 2003-05 105 ft-lbs
Motorhomes & Box Vans with Double Cap Lug Nuts
Stud Size Torque
5/8" 450 ft-lbs
Trailers & Applications Not Listed
Stud Size Torque
7/16" 80 ft-lbs
1/2" 100 ft-lbs
9/16" 140 ft-lbs
5/8" 175 ft-lbs
10mm 50 ft-lbs
12mm 100 ft-lbs
14mm 120 ft-lbs
Abbreviation Key:
RWD - Rear Wheel Drive FWD - Front Wheel Drive
SRW - Single Wheel Drive DRW - Dual Wheel Drive
2WD - Two Wheel Drive 4WD - Four Wheel Drive

Known in Oregon & Parts of California as